Reprint from THE "HOW-TO-DO-IT" BOOKS

PRACTICAL MECHANICS FOR BOYS
By J. S. ZERBE, M.E.

A book which treats, in a most practical and fascinating manner all subjects pertaining to the "King of Trades"; showing the care and use of tools; drawing; designing, and the laying out of work; the principles involved in the building of various kinds of structures, and the rudiments of architecture. It contains over two hundred and fifty illustrations made especially for this work, and includes also a complete glossary of the technical terms used in the art. The most comprehensive volume on this subject ever published for boys.

Copyright, 1914, by
THE NEW YORK BOOK COMPANY

Publisher's disclaimer: Content provided is dated and is for information purposes only.

I - II - III - IV - V - VI - VII - VIII - IX - X - XI - XII - XIII - XIV - XV - XVI - XVII

PRACTICAL MECHANICS FOR BOYS

CHAPTER XVI

HANDY TABLES

TABLE OF WEIGHTS FOR ROUND AND SQUARE STEEL.

The Estimate is on the basis of Lineal Feet. 1 cu. ft. of Steel—490 lbs.

Sizes in
Inches
Weight in Pounds Sizes in
Inches
Weight in Pounds
Round Square Round Square
      
1/16 .110 .013 1/16 3.014 3.400
1/8 .042 .053 1/8 3.379 3.838
3/16.094.1193/163.7664.303
1/4.167.2121/44.1734.795
5/16.261.3335/164.6005.312
3/8.375.4783/85.0495.857
7/16.511.6517/165.5186.428
1/2.667.8501/26.0087.650
9/16.8451.0269/166.5207.650
5/81.0431.3285/87.0518.301
11/161.2621.60811/167.6048.978
3/41.5021.9133/48.17810.410
13/161.7732.24513/168.77311.170
7/82.0442.6037/89.38811.950
15/162.3472.98915/1610.02012.760
12.6703.400210.68013.600
      

WEIGHT OF FLAT STEEL BARS.

Thickness
in
Inches
Width
                   
1/16 .212 .265 .32 .372 .425 .477 .53 .588 .63
1/8 .425 .53 .64 .745 .85 .955 1.06 1.17 1.27
3/16 .638 .797 .957 1.11 1.28 1.44 1.59 1.75 1.91
1/4 .85 1.06 1.28 1.49 1.70 1.91 2.12 2.34 2.55
5/16 1.06 1.33 1.59 1.86 2.12 2.39 2.65 2.92 3.19
3/8 1.28 1.59 1.92 2.23 2.55 2.87 3.19 3.51 3.83
7/16 1.49 1.85 2.23 2.60 2.98 3.35 3.72 4.09 4.46
1/2 1.70 2.12 2.55 2.98 3.40 3.83 4.25 4.67 5.10
9/16 1.92 2.39 2.87 3.35 3.83 4.30 4.78 5.26 5.74
5/8 2.12 2.65 3.19 3.72 4.25 4.78 5.31 5.84 6.38
11/16 2.34 2.92 3.51 4.09 4.67 5.26 5.84 6.43 7.02
3/4 2.55 3.19 3.83 4.47 5.10 5.75 6.38 7.02 7.65
13/16 2.76 3.45 4.14 4.48 5.53 6.21 6.90 7.60 8.29
7/8 2.98 3.72 4.47 5.20 5.95 6.69 7.44 8.18 8.93
15/16 3.19 3.99 4.78 5.58 6.38 7.18 7.97 8.77 9.57
1 3.40 4.25 5.10 5.95 6.80 7.65 8.50 9.35 10.20
                   

AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT.

For Merchandise of all kinds.

16 Drams (dr.) make 1 Ounce (oz.)
16 Ounces make 1 Pound (pd.)
25 Pounds make 1 Quarter (qr.)
4 Quarters, or 100 lbs., make 1 Hundredweight (cwt.)
20 Hundredweights make 1 Ton (T.)
2,240 Pounds make 1 Long ton (L. T.)

TROY WEIGHT.

For Gold, Silver, and Precious Metals.

24 Grains (gr.) make 1 Pennyweight (pwt.)
20 Pennyweights make 1 Ounce (oz.)
12 Ounces make 1 Pound (pd.)

APOTHECARIES WEIGHT.

For Drugs, Medicals and Chemicals.

20 Grains (gr.) make 1 Scruple (sc.)
3 Scruples make 1 Dram (dr.)
8 Drams make 1 Pound (pd.)
12 Ounces make 1 Pound (pd.)

LINEAR MEASURE.

For Surveyors' Use.

12 Inches make 1 Foot
3 Feet make 1 Yard
1/2 Yards make 1 Rod
40 Rods make 1 Furlong
8 Furlongs make 1 Mile

LONG MEASURE.

12 Inches make 1 Foot
3 Feet make 1 Yard
6 Feet make 1 Fathom
1/2 Yards make 1 Rod or pole
40 Poles make 1 Furlong
8 Furlongs make 1 Mile
3 Miles make 1 League
69 1/2 Leagues make 1 Degree

SQUARE MEASURE.

144 square inches make 1 square foot
9 square feet make 1 square yard
30 1/2 square yards make 1 square pole
40 square poles make 1 square rod
4 square rods make 1 acre
640 square acres make 1 acre mile
9 square feet make 1 square yard

SOLID OR CUBIC MEASURE.

1,728 Cubic inches make 1 Cubic foot
27 Cubic feet make 1 Cubic yard
128 Cubic feet make 1 Cord of wood
24 3/4 Cubic feet make 1 Perch of stone

DRY MEASURE.

2 Pints make 1 Quart (qt.)
8 Quarts make 1 peck (pk.)
4 Pecks make 1 Bushel (bu.)
36 Bushels make 1 Chaldron (ch.)

LIQUID MEASURE.

4 Gills (g.) make 1 Pint (pt.)
4 Quarts make 1 Gallon (gal.)
31 1/2 Gallons make 1 Barrel (bbl.)
2 Bbls., or 63 gals., make 1 Hogshead (hhd.)

PAPER MEASURE.

24 Sheets (sh.) make 1 Quire (qu.)
20 Quires make 1 Ream (r.)
10 Reams make 1 Bale (ba.) or bundle.

TABLE OF TEMPERATURES.

Greatest artificial cold 220     degrees below Fahr.
     “   natural      “    39    
Mercury freezes 73.7  
Mixture of snow and salt 4     
Greatest density of water at 39.2   above
Blood Heat 97.9  
Alcohol boils 172.4  
Water boils 212     
Mercury boils 662     
Sulphur boils 824     
Silver melts 1,749     
Cast iron melts 2,786     

STRENGTH OF VARIOUS METALS.

The tests are made by using a cubic inch of the metal and compressing it, and by trying to draw apart a square inch of metal. Indicated in pounds

  Tension Compression
     
Aluminum15,00012,000
Brass, cast24,00030,000
Bronze, gun metal 32,000 20,000
    “    manganese 60,000 120,000
    “    phosphor 50,000 . . . . . .
Copper, cast 24,000 40,000
    “    wire annealed 36,000 . . . . . .
    “    unannealed 60,000 . . . . . .
Iron, cast 15,000 . . . . . .
    “    “    annealed 60,000 80,000
    “    “    unannealed 80,000 . . . . . .
    “    wrought 48,000 46,000
Lead, cast 2,000 . . . . . .
Steel castings 70,000 70,000
    “    plow 270,000 . . . . . .
    “    structural 60,000 60,000
    “    wire annealed 80,000 . . . . . .
    “    crucible 180,000 . . . . . .
Tin 3,800 6,000
     

FREEZING MIXTURES

Mixtures Temperature Changes in
Degrees Fahrenheit
From To
    
Common salt, 1 part; snow, 3 parts32 zero .0
Common salt, 1 part; snow 1 part32 - .4
Calcium chloride, 3 parts; snow 1 part32 -27
Calcium chloride, 2 parts; snow 1 part32 -44
Sal ammoniac, 5 parts; salt-peter 5 parts; water 16 parts50 -10
Sal ammoniac, 1 parts; salt-peter 1 part; water 1 part46 -11
Ammonium nitrate, 1 part; water 1 part50 - 3
Potassium hydrate, 4 parts; snow 3 parts32 -35
    

IGNITION TEMPERATURES.

Phosphorus 120 degrees Fahrenheit
Bi-sulphide of carbon 300
Gun-cotton 430
Nitro-glycerine 490
Phosphorus, amorphous 500
Rifle powder 550
Charcoal 660
Dry pine wood 800
Oak 900

POWER AND HEAT EQUIVALENTS.

In studying matters pertaining to power and heat, certain terms are used, such as horsepower, horsepower-hours, watts, watt-hours, kilowatt, kilowatt-hours, foot-pounds, joule, and B. T. U. (British Thermal Unit).

The following tables give a comprehensive idea of the values of the different terms:

1 Horsepower-hour = 0.746 kilowatt-hour = 1,980,000 foot-pounds of water evaporated at 212 degrees Fahrenheit, raised from 62 degrees to 212 degrees.
1 Kilowatt-hour = 1,000 watt-hours = 1.34 horse-power-hours = 2,653,200 foot-pounds = 3,600,000 joules = 3,420 B. T. U. = 3.54 pounds of water evaporated at 212 degrees = 22.8 pounds of water raised from 62 to 212 degrees.
1 Horsepower = 746 watts = 0.746 kilowatts.= 33,000 foot-pounds per second = 2,550 B. T. U. per min. = 0.71 B. T. U. per second = 2.64 pounds of water evaporated per hour at 212 degrees.
1 Kilowatt = 1,000 watts = 1.34 horsepower = 2,653,200 foot-pounds per hour = 44,220 foot-pounds per min. = 737 foot-pounds per second = 3,420 B. T. U. per hour = 57 B. T. U. per min. = 0.95 B. T. U. per second = 3.54 pounds of water p. 187 evaporated per hour at 212.
1 Watt = 1 joule per second = 0.00134 horse-power = 0.001 kilowatt = 342 B. T. U. per hour = 44.22 foot-pounds per min. = 0.74 foot-pounds per second = 0.0035 pounds of water evaporated per hour at 212 degrees.
1 B. T. U. (British Thermal Unit) = 1,052 watt-seconds = 778 foot-pounds = 0.252 calorie = 0.000292 kilowatt-hours = 0.000391 horsepower-hour = 0.00104 pounds of water evaporated at 212 degrees.
1 Foot-pound = 1.36 joule = 0.000000377 kilowatt-hour = 0.00129 B. T. U. = 0.0000005 horsepower-hour.
1 Joule = 1 watt-second = 0.000000278 kilowatt-hour = 0.00095 B. T. U. = 0.74 foot-pounds.

To Chapter XVII - Inventions and Patents, and Information About the Rights and Duties of Inventors and Workmen

To Table of Contents and Glossary


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