Reprint from THE "HOW-TO-DO-IT" BOOKS

PRACTICAL MECHANICS FOR BOYS
By J. S. ZERBE, M.E.

This book takes the beginner through a comprehensive series of practical shop work, in which the uses of tools, and the structure and handling of shop machinery are set forth; how they are utilized to perform the work, and the manner in which all dimensional work is carried out. Every subject is illustrated, and model building explained. It contains a glossary which comprises a new system of cross references, a feature that will prove a welcome departure in explaining subjects. Fully illustrated.

Copyright, 1914, by
THE NEW YORK BOOK COMPANY

Publisher's disclaimer: Information provided is dated and is for information purposes only.


PRACTICAL MECHANICS FOR BOYS


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Glossary of words used in text of this volume.
 
I. On Tools Generally

Varied Requirements. List of Tools. Swivel Vises. Parts of Lathe. Chisels. Grinding Apparatus. Large Machines. Chucks. Bench Tools. Selecting a Lathe. Combination Square. Micrometers. Protractors. Utilizing Bevel Protractors. Truing Grindstones. Sets of Tools. The Work Bench. The Proper Dimensions. How Arranged.

II. How to Grind and Sharpen Tools

Importance of the Cutting Tool. The Grinder. Correct Use of Grinder. Lathe Bitts. Roughing Tools. The Clearance. The Cutting Angle. Drills. Wrong Grinding. Chisels. Cold Chisels. System in Work. Wrong Use of Tools.

III. Setting and Holding Tools

Lathe Speed. The Hack-saw. Hack-saw Frame. The Blade. Files. Grindstones. Emery and Grinding Wheels. Carelessness in Holding Tools. Calipers. Care in Use of Calipers. Machine Bitts. The Proper Angle for Lathe Tools. Setting the Bitt. The Setting Angle. Bad Practice. Proper Lathe Speeds. Boring Tools on Lathe. The Rake of the Drill. Laps. Using the Lap. Surface Gages. Uses of the Surface Gage.

IV. On the First Use of the File

The First Test. Filing an Irregular Block. Filing a Bar Straight. Filing Bar with Parallel Sides. Surfacing Off Disks. True Surfacing. Precision Tools. Test of the Mechanic. Test Suggestions. Use of the Dividers. Cutting a Key-way. Key-way Difficulties. Filing Metal Round. Kinds of Files. Cotter-file. Square. Pinion. Half-round. Round. Triangular. Equalizing. Cross. Slitting. Character of File Tooth. Double Cut. Float-cut. Rasp Cut. Holding the File. Injuring Files. Drawing Back the File.

V. How to Commence Work

Familiarity with Tools. File Practice. Using the Dividers. Finding Centers. Hack-saw Practice. Cutting Metal True. Lathe Work. First Steps. Setting the Tool. Metals Used. The Four Important Things. Turning Up a Cylinder. Turning Grooves. Disks. Lathe Speeds.

VI. Illustrating Some of the Fundamental Devices

Belt Lacing. Gears. Crown Wheel. Grooved Friction Gearing. A Valve which Closes by the Water Pressure. Cone Pulleys. Universal Joint. Trammel for Making Ellipses. Escapements. Simple Device to Prevent a Wheel or Shaft from Turning Back. Racks and Pinions. Mutilated Gears. Simple Shaft Coupling. Clutches. Ball and Socket Joints. Tripping Devices. Anchor Bolt. Lazy Tongs. Disk Shears. Wabble Saw. Crank Motion by a Slotted Yoke. Continuous Feed by Motion of a Lever. Crank Motion. Ratchet Head. Bench Clamp. Helico-volute Spring. Double helico-volute. Helical Spring. Single Volute Helix Spring. Flat Spiral, or Convolute. Eccentric Rod and Strap. Anti-dead Center for Lathe.

VII. Properties of Materials

Elasticity. Traction. Torsion. Flexure. Tenacity. The Most Tenacious Metal. Ductility. Malleability. Hardness. Alloys. Resistance. Persistence. Conductivity. Equalization. Reciprocity. Molecular Forces. Attraction. Cohesion. Adhesion. Affinity. Porosity. Compressibility. Elasticity. Inertia. Momentum. Weight. Centripetal Force. Centrifugal Force. Capillary Attraction. The Sap of Trees. Sound. Acoustics. Sound Mediums. Vibration. Velocity of Sound. Sound Reflections. Resonance. Echos. Speaking Trumpet. The Stethoscope. The Vitascope. The Phonautograph. The Phonograph. Light. The Corpuscular Theory. Undulatory Theory. Luminous Bodies. Velocity of Light. Reflection. Refraction. Colors. The Spectroscope. The Rainbow. Heat. Expansion.

VIII. How Draughting Becomes a Valuable Aid

Lines in Drawing. Shading. Direction of Shade. Perspectives. The Most Pronounced Lines. Direction of Light. Scale Drawings. Degree, and What it Means. Memorizing Angles. Section Lining. Making Ellipses and Irregular Curves. Focal Points. Isometric and Perspective. The Protractor. Suggestions in Drawing. Holding the Pen. Inks. Tracing Cloth. Detail Paper. How to Proceed. Indicating Material by Section Lines.

IX. Treatment and Use of Metals

Annealing. Toughness and Elasticity. The Process. Tempering. Tempering Contrasted with Annealing. Materials Used. Gradual Tempering. Fluxing. Uniting Metals. Alloying Method. Welding. Sweating. Welding Compounds. Oxidation. Soldering. Soft Solder. Hard Solder. Spelter. Soldering Acid. The Soldering Iron.

X. On Gearing, and How Ordered

Spur and Pinion. Measuring a Gear. Pitch. Diametral Pitch. Circular Pitch. How to Order a Gear. Bevel and Miter Gears. Drawing Gears. Sprocket Wheels.

XI. Mechanical Power

The Lever. Wrong Inferences from Use of Lever. The Lever Principle. Powers vs. Distance Traveled. Power vs. Loss of Time. Wrongly-Directed Energy. The Lever and the Pulley. Sources of Power. Water Power. Calculating Fuel Energy. The Pressure or Head. Fuels. Power from Winds. Speed of Wind and Pressure. Varying Degrees of Pressure. Power from Waves and Tides. A Profitable Field.

XII. On Measures

Horse Power. Foot Pounds. Energy. How to Find Out the Power Developed. The Test. Calculations. The Foot Measure. Weight. The Gallon. The Metric System. Basis of Measurement. Metrical Table, Showing Measurements in Feet and Inches.

XIII. Useful Information for the Workshop

Finding the Circumference of a Circle. Diameter of a Circle. Area of a Circle. Area of a Triangle. Surface of a Ball. Solidity of a Sphere. Contents of a Cone. Capacity of a Pipe. Capacity of Tanks. To Toughen Aluminum. Amalgams. Prevent Boiler Scaling. Diamond Test. Making Glue Insoluble in Water. Taking Glaze Out of Grindstone. To Find Speeds of Pulleys. To Find the Diameters Required. To Prevent Belts from Slipping. Removing Boiler Scale. Gold Bronze. Cleaning Rusted Utensils. To Prevent Plaster of Paris from Setting Quickly. The Measurement of Liquids with Spoons.

XIV. Simplicity of Great Inventions and of Nature's Manifestation

Invention Precedes Science. Simplicity in Inventions. The Telegraph. Telephone. Transmitter. Phonograph. Wireless Telegraphy. Printing Telegraph. Electric Motor. Explosions. Vibrations in Nature. Qualities of Sound. The Photographer's Plate. Quadruplex Telegraphy. Electric Harmony. Odors. Odophone. A Bouquet of Vibrations. Taste. Color.

XV. Workshop Recipes and Formulas

Adhesives for Various Uses. Belt Glue. Cements. Transparent Cement. U. S. Government Gum. To Make Different Alloys. Bell-metal. Brass. Bronzes. Boiler Compounds. Celluloid. Clay Mixture for Forges. Modeling Clay. Fluids for Cleaning Clothes, Furniture, etc. Disinfectants. Deodorants. Emery for Lapping Purposes. Explosives. Fulminates. Files, and How to Keep Clean. Renewing Files. Fire-proof Materials or Substances. Floor Dressings. Stains. Foot Powders. Frost Bites. Glass. To Frost. How to Distinguish. Iron and Steel. To Soften Castings. Lacquers. For Aluminum and Brass. Copper. Lubricants. Paper. Photography. Plasters. Plating, Coloring Metals. Polishes. Putty. Rust Preventives. Solders. Soldering Fluxes. Steel Tempering. Varnishes. Sealing Wax.

XVI. Handy Tables

Table of Weights for Round and Square Steel. Table of Weight of Flat Steel Bars. Avoirdupois Weight. Troy Weight. Apothecaries' Weight. Linear Measure. Long Measure. Square Measure. Solid or Cubic Measure. Dry Measure. Liquid Measure. Paper Measure. Table of Temperatures. Strength of Various Metals. Freezing Mixtures. Ignition Temperatures. Power and Heat Equivalents.

XVII. Inventions and Patents, and Information About the Rights and Duties of Inventors and Workmen

The Machinist's Opportunities. What is an Inventor? Idea Not Invention. What an Invention Must Have. Obligation of the Model Builder. Paying for Developing Devices. Time for Filing an Application. Selling an Unpatented Invention. Joint Inventors. Joint Owners Not Partners. Partnerships in Patents. Form of Protection Issued by the Government. Life of a Patent. Interference Proceedings. Concurrent Applications. Granting Interference. Steps in Interference. First Sketches. First Model. First Operative Machine. Preliminary Statements. Proving Invention. What Patents Are Issued For. Owner's Rights. Divided and Undivided Patents. Assignments. How Made. What an Invention Must Have. Basis for Granting Patent in the United States. Reasons for Granting Abroad. Original Grants of Patents. International Agreement. Application for Patents. Course of Procedure. Costs. Filing a Matter of Secrecy.

 
 

GLOSSARY OF WORDS
USED IN TEXT OF THIS VOLUME

Abrupt.Suddenly; coming without warning.
Abrasive.A material which wears away.
Actuate.Influenced, as by sudden motive; incited to action.
Accumulate.To bring together; to amass; to collect.
Acoustics.The branch of physics which treats of sound.
Adhesion.To hold together; a molecular force by means of which particles stick together.
Affinity.Any natural drawing together; the property or force in chemicals to move toward each other.
Aggravate.To incite; to make worse or more burdensome.
Alloy.A combination of two or more metals.
Altitude.Height; a vertical distance above any point.
Alkali.Any substance which will neutralize an acid, as lime, magnesia, and the like.
Amalgam.Any compound of metal which has mercury as one of the elements.
Amiss.Wrong, fault, misdeed.
Annealing.A process of gradually heating and cooling metals, whereby hardness and toughness are brought about.
Angle plate.A metal structure which has two bodies, or limbs, at right angles to each other.
Analysis.The separating of substances into their elementary forms.
Anchor bolt.A structure intended to be placed in a hole in a wall, and held there by a brew which expands a part of the structure.
Apprentice.One who is learning a trade or occupation.
Artificial.That which resembles the original; made in imitation of.
Arbor.A shaft, spindle, mandrel, or axle.
Armature.A metallic body within the magnetic field of a magnet.
Arbitrary.Stubborn determination. Doing a thing without regard to consequences.
Artisan.One skilled in any mechanical art.
Attributable.That which belongs to or is associated with.
Automatically.Operating by its own structure, or without outside aid.
Augmented.Added to; to increase.
Auxiliary.To aid; giving or furnishing aid.
Avoirdupois.The system of weights, of which the unit is sixteen ounces.
Back-saw.A saw which has a rib at its upper margin.
Barleycorn.A grain of barley.
Bastard.A coarse-grained file.
B. T. U.British Thermal Unit.
Back-gear.That gear on a lathe for changing the feed.
Bevel.Not in a right line; slanting; oblique.
Bibb.A form of water faucet.
Bit, or bitt.A form of tool for cutting purposes on a lathe, planer, shaper, or drilling machine.
Borax.A white crystalline compound, of a sweetish taste. Chemically it is sodium biborate.
Buffs.Usually a wheel covered with leather or cloth, and having emery dust on it, for fine polishing purposes.
Buffeted.Thrown back.
Bronze.An alloy of copper and tin.
Calcium.Lime.
Cant.A form of lever.
Carbonate.A salt of carbonic acid.
Caustic.Capable of corroding or eating away.
Capillary.That quality of a liquid which causes it to move upwardly or along a solid with which it is in contact.
Caliper.An instrument for spanning inside and outside dimensions.
Centripetal.The force which tends to draw inwardly, or to the center.
Centrifugal.The outwardly-moving force from a body.
Centering.To form a point equidistant from a circular line.
Chloride.A compound of chlorine with one or more positive elements, such as, for instance, salt.
Circular pitch.The measurement around a gear taken at a point midway between the base and end of the teeth.
Circumference.The outside of a circular body.
Clef.A character placed on a staff of music to determine the pitch.
Clutch.A mechanical element for attaching one part to another.
Chuck, Independent.A disk of metal to be attached to the live spindle of a lathe, and which has on its face a set of dogs which move radially independently of each other.
Chuck, Universal.A disk to be attached as above, provided with dogs which are connected so they move radially in unison with each other.
Classified.Arranged in order, in such a manner that each of a kind is placed under a suitable heading.
Clearance.To provide a space behind the cutting edge of a tool which will not touch the work being cut.
Consistency.Harmonious; not contradictory.
Coherer.That instrument in a wireless telegraphy apparatus which detects the electrical impulses.
Commutator.The cylindrical structure on the end of an armature, which is designed to change the polarity of the current.
Concentrated.Brought together at one point.
Coinage.The system of making money from metals.
Compound.The unity of two or more elements.
Constant.Being insistent and consistent; also a term to be used in a problem which never varies.
Conversion.The change from one state to another.
Cone.A body larger at one end than at another; usually applied to a form which is cylindrical in shape but tapering, from end to end.
Compression.The bringing together of particles, or molecules.
Convolute.A spiral form of winding, like a watch spring.
Coiled.A form of winding, like a string wound around a bobbin.
Conductivity.Applied generally to the quality of material which will carry a current of electricity; also a quality of a material to convey heat.
Cohesion.The force by which the molecules of the same kind are held together.
Concentric.A line which is equidistant at all points from a center.
Confined.Held within certain bounds.
Corpuscular.Molecular or atomic form.
Converge.To come together from all points.
Concave.A surface which is depressed or sunken.
Convex.A surface which is raised, or projects beyond the surface of the edges.
Component.One of the elements in a problem or in a compound.
Coefficient.A number indicating the degree or quality possessed by a substance. An invariable unit.
Cube.A body having six equal sides.
Cross-section.A term used to designate that line which is at right angles to the line running from the view point.
Cross slide.The metal plate on a lathe which holds the tool post, and which is controlled, usually, by a screw.
Contiguous.Close to; near at hand.
Countersink.The depression around a bore.
Collet.A collar, clutch or clamping piece, which has jaws to hold a bar or rod.
Countershaft.A shaft which has thereon pulleys or gears to connect operatively with the gears or pulleys on a machine, and change the speed.
Conducive.Tending to; promotive of a result.
Corundum.An extremely hard aluminum oxide used for polishing.
Cold chisel.A term applied to an extremely hard chisel used for cutting and chipping metal.
Combustion.The action or operation of burning.
Conjunctively.Acting together.
Comparatively.Similitude or resemblance, one with another.
Cotter.A key to prevent a wheel turning on its shaft.
Dead center.A term used to designate the inoperative point of the crank.
Depicting.Showing; setting forth.
Deodorant.A substance which will decompose odors.
Developer.A chemical which will bring out the picture in making the film or plate in photography.
Decimeter.The length of one-tenth of a meter in the metric system.
Decameter.The length of ten meters in the metric system.
Defective.Not perfect; wrong in some particular.
Diaphragm.A plate, such as used in a telephone system, to receive and transmit vibrations.
Dissolving.To change from a solid to a liquid condition.
Division plate.A perforated plate in a gear-cutting machine, to aid in dividing the teeth of a wheel.
Dispelled.To drive away or scatter.
Disinfectant.A material which will destroy harmful germs.
Diametral pitch.The number of teeth in a gear as calculated on the pitch line.
Dimension.Measurement; size.
Ductility.That property of metal which permits it to be drawn out, or worked.
Dividers.An instrument, like a compass, for stepping off measurements, or making circles.
Diverge.Spreading out from a common point.
Drift.A cutting tool for smoothing a hole in a piece of metal.
Duplex.Two; double.
Dynamite.An explosive composed of an absorbent, like earth, combined with nitro-glycerine.
Dynamometer.An instrument for measuring power developed.
Eccentric.Out of center.
Echoes.The reflection of sound.
Effervesce.The action due to the unity of two opposite chemicals.
Efficiency.The term applied to the quality of effectiveness.
Ellipse.A form which is oblong, or having a shape, more or less, like the longitudinal section of an egg.
Electrolytic.The action of a current of water passing through a liquid, and decomposing it, and carrying elements from one electrode to the other.
Elasticity.The quality in certain substances to be drawn out of their normal shape, and by virtue of which they will resume their original form when released.
Embedded.To be placed within a body or substance.
Emerge.To come out of.
Emphasize.To lay particular stress upon.
Emery.A hard substance, usually some of the finely divided precious stones, and used for polishing and grinding purposes.
Enormous.A large amount; great in size.
Enunciated.Proclaimed; given out.
Equalization.To put on an even basis; to make the same comparatively.
Eradicator.To take out; to cause to disappear.
Escapement.A piece of mechanism devised for the purpose of giving a uniform rate of speed to the movement of wheels.
Essential.The important feature; the principal thing.
Expansion.To enlarge; growing greater.
Equidistant.The same distance from a certain point.
Evolved.Brought out of; the result of certain considerations.
Facet.A face.
Facilitated.Made easy.
Flux.Any substance which will aid in uniting material under heat. The act of uniting.
Fluid.Any substance in which the particles freely interchange positions.
Flour emery.Emery which is finely ground.
Flexible.The quality of any material which will permit bending.
Float cut.The term when applied to a tool where the cut is an easy one.
Flexure.The springing yield in a substance.
Foot pound.A unit, usually determined by the number of pounds raised one foot in one second of time. 550 pounds raised one foot in one second of time, means so many foot pounds.
Formulate.To arrange; to put in order from a certain consideration of things.
Focus.The center of a circle.
Foci.One of the points of an ellipse.
Formation.The structure of a machine or of a compound.
Fractured.Broken.
Fundamental.Basis; the first form; the original structure.
Fulcrum.The resting place for a lever.
Fusion.Melting. The change of a metal from a solid to a liquid state by heat.
Fusible.That which is capable of being melted.
Fulminate.A substance that will ignite or explode by heat or friction.
Gamut.The scale of sound or light, or vibrations of any kind.
Gear.A toothed wheel of any kind.
Gelatine.A tasteless transparent substance obtained from animal tissues.
Globular.Having the form of a globe or ball.
Glazed.Having a glossary appearance.
Graphite.A metallic, iron-black variety of carbon.
Graduated.To arrange in steps; a regular order or series.
Grinder.Any mechanism which abrades or wears down a substance.
Gullet.The curved notches or grooves between projecting parts of mechanism.
Harmonizing.To make the various parts act together in unison.
H. P.The symbol for horse power.
Helico.A form resembling that of the threads of a screw.
Hexagon.Six-sided.
Heliograph.The system of signaling by using flashlights.
Horizontal.Things level with the surface of the earth; like the surface of water.
Hydrogen.The lightest of all the elements. A tasteless, colorless substance.
Import.To bear, or convey as a meaning.
Impulse.The application of an impelling force.
Impact.A collision; striking against.
Invariably.Constant; without failing.
Inertia.The quality of all materials to remain at rest, or to continue in motion, unless acted on by some external force.
Intersect.To divide at a certain point. The crossing point of one line over another.
Interval.A space; a distance between.
Intensity.Strained or exerted to a high degree.
Interstices.The spaces between the molecules or atoms in a substance.
Intermediate.Between.
Intermeshing.The locking together of gear wheels.
Internal.That which is within.
Inability.Unable to perform or do.
Initial.The first; at the start.
Increment.One of the parts which go to make up the whole.
Inference.Drawing a conclusion from a certain state of things.
Insoluble.A substance which cannot be liquefied by a liquid.
Indentations.Recesses, or cut-out parts or places.
Induction.The movement of electricity through the air from one conductor to another.
Inflammable.That which will burn.
Inclining.At an angle; sloping.
Inconsequential.Not of much importance.
Isometric.That view of a figure which will give the relation of all the parts in their proper proportions.
Jaw.The grasping part of a vise, or other tool.
Joule.The practical unit of electrical energy.
Key-way.A groove in a shaft and in the hub of a wheel, to receive therein a locking key.
Kilowatt.A unit of electrical power; one thousand watts.
Kinetic.Consisting of motion.
Lacing.The attaching of the ends of a belt to each other.
Lap.A tool, usually of copper or lead, on which flour emery is spread, with oil, and used to grind out the interior of cylinders.
Lapping.The act of using a lap to grind out cylinders.
Lacquer.A varnish for either wood or metal.
Lazy-tongs.A form of tool, by means of which a long range of movement is attainable, and great grasp of power.
Levigated.Reduced to a fine powder.
Litharge.A form of lead used in paints for drying purposes.
Longitudinal.Lengthwise.
Luminous.That which has the capacity to light up.
Magnet.A bar of iron or steel that has electricity in it capable of attracting certain metals.
Manipulation.Capable of being handled.
Mandrel.The revolving part of a lathe; a rod or bar which turns and carries mechanical elements thereon.
Manually.Operated by hand.
Margin.An edge.
Malleability.Softness. The state of being formed by hammering.
Magnetism.A quality of certain metals to receive and hold a charge of electricity.
Major axis.The measurement across the longest part of an ellipse.
Minor axis.The distance across the narrowest part of an ellipse.
Meridian.The time when the sun crosses the middle of the heavens; midday.
Metric.Measure; a system which takes the unit of its measurement from the circumference of the earth.
Micrometer.A tool for measuring small spaces or intervals.
Milling machine.A large tool for the purpose of cutting gears and grooves or surfaces.
Miter.A meeting surface between two right-angled pieces.
Momentum.That quality of matter which is the combined energy of mass and speed.
Molecular.Any substance that is made up of any particles; the component elements in any substance.
Modifications.Changes; improved arrangements.
Multiplicity.Many; numerous; a large quantity.
Mutilated.As applied to a gear, one in which certain teeth are removed.
Nautical.Marine; applied to shipping, and the like.
Neutralizes.Any substance, like a chemical, which, when added to another chemical, will change them both.
Nitro-glycerine.An explosive made from glycerine and nitrogen.
Oblique.At an angle; inclined.
Obliterate.To wipe out.
Obvious.That which can be seen; easily observed.
Obtuse.A blunt angle; not noticeable.
Odophone.An instrument for determining and testing odors.
Olfactory.The nerves of the sense of smell.
Orifice.An opening; a hole.
Oscillation.A movement to and fro, like a pendulum.
Oxygen.The most universal gas, colorless and tasteless; is called the acid-maker of the universe and unites with all known substances, producing an acid, an alkali, or a neutral compound.
Oxidizing.To impart to any substance the elements of oxygen.
Oxide.Any substance which has oxygen added to it.
Pallet.A part of a tooth or finger which acts on the teeth of a wheel.
Parallel.Lines or sides at equal distance from each other from end to end.
Paraffine.A light-colored substance, produced from refined petroleum.
Perimeter.The outer margin of a wheel; the bounding line of any figure of two dimensions.
Periphery.The outer side of a wheel.
Peen.The nailing end of a hammer.
Persistence.That quality of all matter to continue on in its present condition.
Perpendicular.A line drawn at right angles to another.
Perpetual.Without end.
Perspective.A view of an object which takes in all parts at one side.
Physically.Pertaining to the body.
Phonautograph.An apparatus for recording sound.
Phonograph.An apparatus for taking and sending forth sound vibration.
Phenomena.Any occurrence in nature out of the ordinary.
Pitman.The rod or bar which connects the piston and crank.
Pivot.A point or bar on which anything turns.
Pinion.A small toothed wheel.
Pitch.The number of vibrations. The term used to give the number of teeth in a wheel.
Pitch diameter.The point from which the measurements are made in determining the pitch.
Pivoted.A bar, lever, or other mechanical element, arranged to turn on or about a point.
Plastic.A substance in such a state that it may be kneaded or worked.
Planer.A large tool designed to cut or face off wood or metal.
Porosity.The quality in all substances to have interstices, or points of separation, between the molecules.
Potential.The power.
Properties.The qualities possessed by all elements.
Projecting.The throwing forward. The sending out.
Promulgated.Put forth; enunciated.
Protractor.A mechanic's and draughtsman's tool by means of which angles may be formed.
Promote.To carry forward in a systematic way.
Precision.Work done with care; observing correct measurements.
Prony brake.A machine for determining horse power.
Punch.A small tool to be struck by a hammer in order to make an impression or indentation.
Quadrant.One-fourth of a circle.
Quadrant plate.A plate on which are placed lines and numbers indicating degrees.
Quadruplex.A term to designate that system of telegraphy in which four messages are sent over a single wire at the same time.
Ratchet.A wheel having teeth at certain intervals to catch the end of a pawl or finger.
Ratchet brace.A tool to hold a drill, having a reversible ratchet wheel.
Rasp cut.A cut of a file which is rough, not smooth.
Rake.The angle or inclination of the upper surface of the cutting tool of a lathe.
Reverse.To turn about; in the opposite direction.
Reciprocating.To go back and forth.
Revolve.To move in an orbit or circle, as a merry-go-round.
Reciprocity.To give back in like measure.
Reflection.The throwing back from a surface.
Resonance.The quality of vibration which adds to the original movement, and aids in perpetuating the sound.
Refraction.The quality of light which causes it to bend in passing through different substances.
Reducing.Bringing it down to a smaller compass.
Rectilinear.A straight line.
Retort.A furnace of refractory material to take high heat.
Reamer.A tool designed to enlarge or to smooth out holes.
Regulation.To do things in an orderly way; a system which sets forth certain requirements.
Refractory.Difficult to work, and not easily fused.
Recess.A hole, or a depression.
Rocking.A lever which rotates only part way and then moves in the opposite direction.
Rotate.A spindle which turns round. Compare revolve.
Rosin.Certain gums; particularly the sap of pine trees.
Roughing.The taking off of the first coating with a tool.
Saturated.A soluble substance which cannot be further dissolved by a liquid.
Scribe.To mark with a tool.
Screw plate.A tool which has within it means for adjusting different cutting tools.
Section lining.The marks made diagonally across drawings to indicate that the part is cut away.
Shaper.A large tool for surfacing off material, cutting grooves, and the like.
Shrinkage.The term applied to metals when cast, as all will be smaller when cold than when cast in the mold.
Slide rest.The part of the lathe which holds the tool post.
Sonorous.Having the quality of vibration.
Slotted.Grooved, or channeled.
Solvent.That which can be changed from a solid by liquids.
Spelter.A combination of zinc and copper. A hard solder.
Soldering.Uniting of two substances by a third, with heat.
Spindle.A small shaft.
Spur.The larger of two intermeshing gears.
Socket.A depression or hole.
Sprocket.Teeth in a wheel to receive a chain.
Spiral.A form wound like the threads of a screw.
Surface plate.A true surface made of metal, used as a means of determining evenness of the article made.
Sulphate.Any substance which is modified by sulphuric acid.
Substitute.An element or substance used for another.
Superposed.One placed above the other.
Swage.Tool for the purpose of changing the form in a material.
Swivel.A point on which another turns.
Surfacing.Taking off the outer coating or covering.
Tap.A small drill.
Tapering.An object with the sides out of parallel.
Tangential.A line from the periphery of a circle which projects out at an angle.
Tension.The exertion of a force.
Tenacity.The property of a material to hang together.
Tempering.Putting metal in such condition that it will be not only hard but tough as well.
Technical.Pertaining to the strict forms and terms of an art.
Texture.That of which the element or substance is composed.
Threads.The ridges, spiral in form, which run around a bolt.
Theoretically.The speculative form or belief in a subject.
Tinned.The term applied to the coating on a soldering iron with a fluxed metal.
Tines.Small blades.
Torsion.The force exerted around an object, like the action of a crank on a shaft.
Tommy.A lever to be inserted in a hole in a screw head for turning a screw.
Transmitting.Sending forth; to forward.
Trammel.A tool for the purpose of drawing ellipses.
Traction.Drawing; pulling power.
Tripping.A motion applied to a finger, which holds a pivoted arm, whereby the latter may be swung from its locked position.
Triangular.Having three sides and three angles.
Transverse.Across; at right angles to the long direction.
Undercut.A wall of a groove or recess which is sloping.
Undulatory.A wave-like motion, applied generally to light and electricity.
Unit.A base for calculating from.
Unison.Acting together; as one.
Unsized.Generally applied to the natural condition of paper or fabric which has no glue or other fixing substance on it.
Vaporising.To change from a liquid or solid to a gas.
Variation.Changing into different conditions; unlike forms.
Verge.The edge; usually applied to the shoulder of a watch spindle, particularly to the escapement.
Vertical.Up and down. The direction of a plumb line.
Velocity.The speed of an article through space.
Vitascope.An instrument for determining the rate of vibration of different substances.
Vibration.The movement to and fro of all elements, and by means of which we are made sensitive of the different forces.
Vocation.The business or the calling of a person.
Warding.The act of cutting a projection or guard, such as is usually found on the insides of locks, and the correspondent detent in the key.
Watt.In electricity the unit of the rate of working in a circuit. It is the electro-motive force of one volt and the current intensity of one ampere.

THE "HOW-TO-DO-IT" BOOKS

Carpentry for Boys


This book by Mr. Zerbe treats, in a most practical and fascinating manner all subjects pertaining to the "King of Trades"; showing the care and use of tools; drawing; designing, and the laying out of work; the principles involved in the building of various kinds of structures, and the rudiments of architecture. It contains over two hundred and fifty illustrations made especially for this work, and includes also a complete glossary of the technical terms used in the art. The most comprehensive volume on this subject ever published for boys.

Online Reprint

The third book in this series by Mr. Zerbe, Electricity for Boys, is available as a download from Project Gutenberg, the content is quite dated so it has not been added as an online reprint.

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